Drawing Techniques: a Guide
Liquid Media  
The liquid media consist of inks, which are applied in fine lines with pens or as washes with brushes, and of paints, which are traditionally applied with brushes and are primarily used for color and shading, and less often for linear indications of form. Inks are water-based, and the coloring agent is usually some form of carbon, although sepia ink is made from the natural dye expelled by the cuttlefish as camouflage. The white pigments which are an essential adjunct of dark inks are manufactured from metallic substances, either lead or zinc. Colored paints, whether made by hand in the workshop from natural materials or manufactured, as they are today, are produced with an extensive variety materials and processes.
Pen and ink Brush and wash

Quill pen

Lead white heightening

Reed pen

Chinese white

Metal nib pen


Brown inks





Oil paint
Black ink  
Colored chalks
Pen and ink