Drawing Techniques: a Guide
Dry Media: Conté Crayon  

In 1795, Nicolas Jacques Conté, responding to the shortage of graphite caused by the Napoleonic Wars, invented the crayon that is still known by his name. It consisted of a combination of powdered graphite and clay. In addition to using less clay, Conté's crayons could be manufactured in controlled grades of hardness. The sticks sold as conté crayon today are actually a variety of fabricated chalk.

  Millet, Study Sheet, Private Collection